Indian Civilization and Culture Summary


In this Blog Includes:  

1. About Author

2. Full Explanation (Hindi & English)

3. Summary (Hindi & English)

4. Word Powers 

5. VVI MCQs

6. VVI Question & Answer

LESSON : 1

Indian Civilization and Culture

  ABOUT MAHATMA GANDHI  


Mohan Das Karamchand
Gandhi is Popularly known as Bapu or the “Father of the Nation,” He was born in Porbandar, Gujrat on 2 October , 1869. He was more of a spiritual leader than a politician. He successfully used truth and nonviolence as the chief weapons against the British rule in Indian and helped India gain independence. From 1915 till 1948, he completely dominated Indian politics. He died at the hands of a fanatic on 30 January 1948.

 Indian Civilization and Culture EXPLANATION    

ENGLISH EXPLANATION


Mahatma Gandhi in his essay “Indian Civilization and Culture” has described the importance of Indian civilization.

The sound foundation of Indian civilization has successfully with stood the passage of time. The western civilization which has the tendency to privilege materiality cannot match the Indian civilization that elevates the moral being.

The Indian civilization is unparalleled and can not be beaten in the world. The seeds sown by our ancestors were deep-rooted and had developed miraculously in a big tree with many of its branches spread over the heart of India. Rome, Greece and many other centers of an ancient civilization were diminished or no longer exist in their former glory. Japan has become westernized and China has also shifted from its past culture. Civilization points out to man the path of duty, performance of duty and observance of morality are exchangeable.

It is a charge against India that her people are uncivilized and they do not adopt any change. It is a charge really against our merit. In the midst of such allegations, India remains firm and immovable and that is her glory. “Mind is a restless bird”, is but a fact. The more it gets the more it wants and still remains unsatisfied. As such our ancestors set a limit to our indulgences. They persuaded us against luxuries and pleasures. For them, large cities were burden and trap. People would not be happy there, because there would be gangs of thieves, robbers, prostitutes and antisocial elements there.

The Indian civilization elevates the moral being whereas the western – civilization is to propagate immortality. Hie latter is godless, the former is based on a belief in God. The ancient civilization is an imperative restriction upon an indefinite multiplicity of human wants whereas modern civilization is just the reverse.

In the west, wonderful discoveries in things material have been made. In India similarly, Hinduism has made still more marvelous discoveries in things of religion, the spirit, and the soul. There is something in Hinduism that has kept alive up till now. It has witnessed the fall of so many civilizations like Baby Ionia, Syria, Egypt and so on.

Our civilization, culture, and swaraj depend upon restricting wants and self-denial instead of multiplying our wants and self-indulgence. European civilization is suited for the Europeon and will ruin us (India) if we copy it. Civilization in the real sense of the terms consists of the deliberate and voluntary restriction of wants not in the multiplication, as already mentioned.

It is necessary to arrange our physical and cultural circumstances so that they do not become an obstacle in our service to humanity and all our energies should be concentrated to develop them.
  HINDI EXPLANATION  

महात्मा गाँधी ने अपने लेख “इण्डियन सिविलॉइजेशन एण्ड कल्चर” (Indian Civilization and Culture) में भारतीय सभ्यता के महत्त्व का वर्णन किया है। भारतीय सभ्यता की सुदृढ़ आधारशिला समय से संघर्ष करते हुए आगे की ओर अग्रसर हुई है। पाश्चात्य-सभ्यता, जो कि भौतिकता को विशेष महत्त्व देती थी, भारतीय परिस्थितियों एवं आदर्शों से तालमेल नहीं बैठा सकी।

भारतीय सभ्यता अद्वितीय है तथा उसे विश्व में पराजित नहीं किया जा सकता । हमारे पूर्वजों द्वारा जिस बीज का रोपण किया गया था उसकी जड़ें अत्यंत गहरी थीं तथा कालांतर में चमात्कारिक रूप में एक बडे वक्ष के रूप में विकसित हआ तथा इसकी अनेक शाखाएँ भारत के हृदय-स्थल पर फैल गयीं। प्राचीन सभ्यता के रोम, ग्रीक तथा अनेक अन्य केन्द्र या तो दुर्बल हो गए अथवा अपने प्राचीन गौरव को अक्षण्ण नहीं रख सके। जापान ने पाश्चात्य सभ्यता को अंगीकार कर लिया। चीन भी अपनी प्राचीन संस्कृति से भटक गया तथा उसे त्याग दिया।

सभ्यता मनुष्य को कर्तव्य की राह दिखाती है। कर्तव्य का निर्वहन तथा आदर्शों का पालन अहस्तारणीय है, वह विनिमयशील नहीं है।

भारत पर यह आरोप लगाया जाता है कि यहाँ का जन-समुदाय असभ्य (अशिष्ट) है तथा वे किसी परिवर्तन को स्वीकार नहीं करते हैं अर्थात् वे स्वयं में बदलाव नहीं लाना चाहते । वस्तुतः यह आरोप हमारी प्रतिभा के विरुद्ध लगाया गया है। इन आरोपों के बावजूद भारत अटल तथा दृढ़ बना हुआ है तथा यही इसका गौरव तथा प्रताप है। यह एक तथ्य है कि “मस्तिष्क एक अशांत पक्षी है।” जितना अधिक उसे दिया जाता है उतना ही अधिक वह चाहता है अर्थात् उसकी इच्छाएँ अनन्त हैं। वह उसके पश्चात भी असंतुष्ट बना रह जाता है। इसी कारण हमारे पूर्वजों ने हमारी संलिप्तता की सीमा निश्चित कर दी थी। उन्होंने हमें विलासिता तथा आनन्द के विरुद्ध चेताया। उनके अनुसार नगर एक प्रकार का फंदा तथा बोझ है, लोग (जन समुदाय) वहाँ (नगरों में) सुखी नहीं रह सकते क्योंकि वहाँ चोरों, डाकुओं, अनैतिक आचरण वाली युवितियों तथा असामाजिक तत्वों का बाहुल्य है।

भारतीय सभ्यता नैतिकता को उजागर करती है जबकि पाश्चात्य सभ्यता अनैतिकता का प्रचार करती है। पाश्चात्य सभ्यता ईश्वर विहीन है, अर्थात् ईश्वर पर उसकी आस्था नहीं है। भारतीय सभ्यता ईश्वर की सत्ता (अस्तित्व) पर विश्वास करती है। प्राचीन सभ्यता अनन्त मानवीय आवश्यकताओं पर एक सार्थक नियन्त्रण है जबकि आधुनिक सभ्यता ठीक उसके विपरीत है।

पाश्चात्य देशों में भौतिकवादी वस्तुओं से संबंधित आश्चर्यजनक आविष्कार हुए हैं। उसी प्रकार हिन्दुत्व से उससे भी अधिक गौरवपूर्ण एवं आश्चर्यजनक अन्वेषण धर्म, आत्मा तथा अन्तःकरण से संबंधित क्षेत्रों में किए हैं। हिन्दुत्व में ऐसा कुछ विशेष तत्त्व है जिसने इसे जीवित बनाए रखा है। इसने (हिन्दुत्व) बेवीलोन, सीरिया, मिश्र आदि अनेकों सभ्यताओं का पता देखा है। हमारी सभ्यता, संस्कृति तथा स्वराज्य, हमारी अपनी आवश्यकताओं इच्छाओं तथा आत्मोत्सर्ग पर निर्भर करता है। अपनी अनियन्त्रित आवश्यकताओं, इच्छाओं की वृद्धि एवं संलिप्तता से यह कदापि संभव नहीं । यूरोपीय सभ्यता, यूरोपवासियों के अनुकूल (उपयुक्त) है तथा यदि हम इसकी नकल करेंगे तो हम (भारतवासी) विनष्ट हो जाएंगे। सही अर्थों में आवश्यकताओं पर स्वैच्छिक नियन्त्रण एवं आत्मानुशासन ही सभ्यता का मूलमन्त्र है तथा उन्हीं से यह निर्मित है।
पनी भौतिक तथा सांस्कृतिक आवश्यकताओं को यथास्थान सजाना अत्यावश्यक है ताकि हमारे द्वारा मानवता की सेवा में वे बाधक नहीं बन सके। साथ ही हमारी समस्त ऊर्जा इनके विकास
में समाहित तथा एकत्रित हो सके




 Indian Civilization & Culture Summary 

Indian Civilization And Culture” is written by  Mahatma Gandhi. In this essay, he compares Indian Civilization to the Civilization of the West and finds it superior to all.

Our Indian Civilization is the most ancient, the most vital and the longest surviving of all civilization in the world. So, our civilization can teach the world. Therefore, we need not copy of Western civilization.
According to Gandhiji,
Mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants still it remains always unsatisfied.” The more we indulge in our passion the more our mind becomes uncontrolled.
Lastly, Gandhiji says that it behoves every lover of India to clings to the old Indian Civilization even as 
a child clings to his mother’s breast.


  Indian Civilization & Culture Summary 


भारतीय सभ्यता और संस्कृति”  महात्मा गाँधी के द्वारा लिखित एक उल्लेखनीय निबंध है। इस निबंध में, वे भारतीय सभ्यता की तुलना पश्चिम की सभ्यता से करते है और इसे सभी से बेहतर पाते हैं।
हमारी भारतीय सभ्यता दुनिया की सभी सभ्यताओं में सबसे प्राचीन, सबसे महत्वपूर्ण और सबसे लंबे समय तक जीवित रहने वाली है। इसीलिए, हमारी सभ्यता दुनिया को सिखा सकती है। अतः हमें पश्चिमी सभ्यता की नकल करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है।

गांधीजी के अनुसार, “मन एक बेचैन पक्षी के सामान है, जितना अधिक इसे प्राप्त होता है उतना ही अधिक यह चाहता है फिर भी यह हमेशा असंतुष्ट रहता हैं” जितना अधिक हम अपने जुनून में लिप्त होते हैं उतना ही हमारा मन अनियंत्रित हो जाता है।

अंत में, गांधीजी का कहना है कि भारत के हर प्रेमी को पुरानी भारतीय सभ्यता से ऐसे चिपके रहना चाहिए जैसे एक बच्चा अपनी माँ के स्तन से चिपका रहता है।


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    WORD  POWER || शब्दार्थ    


1. Evolved : निकला, विकसित हुआ 

2. Fate : भाग्य  
3. Pharaohs : प्राचीन मिश्र के शासक 
4. Immovable : अचल, ढृढ़ 
5. Glory : चमक, वैभव , गौरव 
6. Stolid आवेगहीन 
7. Anvil : निहाई 
8. Sheet anchor : सुरक्षा 
9. Convertible : परिवर्तन के योग्य  
10. Unbridled : बिना लगाम के  
11. Dissuaded : हटाया, विरुद्ध सलाह किया  
12. Indigenous : स्वदेशीय 
13. Life-corroding : जीवन को नस्ट करते हुए 
14. Moral fibre : चरित्र 
15. Deliberation : विचार-विमर्श 
16. Snare : जाल 
17. Encumberation : भार 
18. Vice : दुर्गुण 
19. Flourishing : विकशित होना 
20.Touts : दलालो 
21. Lure : ललचाना 
22. Votaries : वोटरों 
23. Elevate : बढ़ाना, ऊंचा करना 
24. Propagate : फैलाना 
25. Behoves : सही या जरुरी होता है 
26. Cling : चिपकना 
27. Shun : त्यागना , छोड़ना 
28. Unadulterated : बिना मिलावट के 
29. Insatiableness : असंतुस्ट अवस्ता 
30. Bartering : सामनो या संपत्ति आदि का आदान 
31. Enamoured : प्रसनन  होना 
32. Onrush : उफन , प्रवाह 
33. Gibbon : एक अंग्रेज इतिहासकार 
34. Ruin : विनास 
35. Assimilate : मिलाना 
36. The Golden Fleece : ऐसा वस्तु जिसको प्राप्त करना कठिन हो 
37. Hindrance : बाधा 
38. Delusion : गलत धारणा 





1. 'Indian Civilization and Culture' is written by ____
"भारतीय सभ्यता और संस्कृति" ......... के द्वारा लिखा गया है 
A. Dr. Zakir Hussain 
B. Mahatma Gandhi 
C. Martin Luther King.Jr
D. Shiga Naoya 

2. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Born?
महात्मा गाँधी जी का जन्म कब  हुआ था 
A. 1869
B. 1844
C. 1911
D. 1857

3. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Died ?
महात्मा गाँधी कब मरे 
A. 1956
B. 1948
C. 1943
D. 1968

4. Modern Civilization is based on___
आधुनिक सभ्यता ........ निर्भर करता है 
A. Idols
B. Arts
C. Politics
D. Material 

5. 'My Experiments with Truth' is a___
"माय एक्सपेरिमेंट्स विथ ट्रुथ" एक .... है 
A. Story
B. Novel 
C. Autobiography 
D. Biography

6. India's Glory is that it___
भारत की महिमा है की यह ......... है 
A. Remains movable
B. Remains immovable
C. Always flourish
D. Never give up hope

7. Gandhi dominated Indian politics during....... 
गाँधी जी ने भारतीय राजनीति पर कब शासन किया _____
A. 1869-1948
B. 1915-1948
C. 1919-1948
D. 1916-1948

8. The Western Civilization has the tendency to privilege____ 
पक्षमी सभय्ता में विशाधिकार प्राप्त करने की प्रवित्ती ____
A. Paternity
B. Morality
C. Materiality
D. Dominancy

9. Indian civilization elevates the___
भारतीय सभय्ता _____ को बढ़ाता है 
A. Foundation
B. Independence
C. Spiritual
D. Moral being

10. Machinery makes us slaves and we lose our
A. Moral fibre
B. Own strength
C. Ideology
D. Character

11. Modern Civilization is mainly the worship of___ 
A. Idols
B. Material
C. Arts
D. Politics

12. "Modern Civilization" is based on___
A. Imperialism
B. Materialism
C. Dissatisfaction
D. Non-violence

13. He was more a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Lal Bahadur Shashtri
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Lokmanya Tilak

14. Which civilization is not beaten in the world?
A. Greek
B. Indian
C. Pharaohs
D. Chinese

15. Who imagined, that (they will avoid the mistakes of Greece and Rome)?
A. Indian
B. Chinese
C. Japanese
D. Europeans

16. Mahatma Gandhi has written this lesson ?
A. I Have a Dream
B. The Artist
C. Indian Civilization and Culture
D. The Earth

17. _____ were rulers of Egypt.
A. Americans
B. Africans
C. Iranians
D. Pharaohs

18. Civilization is the state of development of a....
A. people
B. animal
C. bird
D. non-living things

19. Gibbon is associated with____
A. Italy
B. Sweden
C. Russia
D. America

20. European Civilization will mean ____ for India.
A. want
B. living
C. real
D. ruin

21. "Simple living and high thinking" is the base of........
A. American Civilization
B. Indian Civilization
C. European Civilization
D. None of these

22. ____ was a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Nehru Jee
B. Sardar Patel
C. Mahatma Gandhi 
D. Indira Gandhi

23. The mind is a restless the more it gets the more it wants.
A. Bird
B. Dog
C. Cow
D. Monkey

24. The people of Europe learn their lesson from the writing of the man of _____
A. Germany 
B. Britain 
C. Greece or Rome 
D. Spain 

25. "Plain living and high thinking' is the motto of -
A. Western philosopher
B. Eastern philosopher
C. North philosopher
D. None of these

26. Sacrifice is the sole aim of our-
A. Philosopher
B. Farmers
C. Righis
D. Scientists


27. __________ were satisfied with small villages.
A. Germans
B. Our ancestors
C. Romans
D. Italians

28. Indian civilization taught us to be more _____another?
A. Upset
B. Enemy
C. Angry
D. Friendly

29. Our ancestor enjoyed ______ rule.
हमारे पूर्वज......नियम का मजा लेते थे 
A. Nice
B. Society 
C. Home
D. Nation

30. Wealth & Luxuries do not make a _____happy.
धन और भोग विलास ...... को खुश नहीं कर सकते है 
A. Bird
B. Man 
C. Cow
D. Dog

31. Gandhi ji went to Champaran in______
गाँधी जी.......में चम्पारण गए 
A. 1917
B. 1915
C. 1918
D. 1916

32. The people of Europe are inspired by _____ and Roman writers.
A. British
B. German 
C. Greek
D. Indian 

33. The invention of _____proved a milestone in our development.
A. Fire
B. Agriculture 
C. Carpentary
D. None of these

34. He wrote different articles for.....
A. The Hindu 
B. The Times of India
C. The Blitze
D. Young India

35. Civilization points out to man......
A. how to make money
B. how to win the enemy
C. the path of duty
D. the way of living

36. To observe  morality is to attain mastery over......
A. economic growth 
B. political ability
C. minds and passions
D. art

37. The mind is a restless bird which always remains......
A. Hungry 
B. Unsatisfied
C. Thirsty
D. Sick 

38. Happiness is largely a.......
A. mental condition
B. physical condition
C. disease
D. imagination


39. Mahatma Gandhi Jee used as the cheif weapons____
A. swords
B. nuclear weapon 
C. truth & non-voilencne
D. guns

40. Our ancestors dissuaded us from _____
हमारे पूर्वज हमें.......से दूर रहने कहा 
A. politics
B. luxuries & pleasure
C. morality
D. spirituality 

41. People in ancient days were satisfied with........ 
प्राचीन समय में लोग अपने से ......... खुश थे 
A. towns
B. cities
C. villages
D. mega cities

42. Our forefathers saw that kings and their swords were inferior to........
A. the swords of ethics
B. the swords of politics
C. the sword of economics
D. the swords of treachery 

43. In ancient days the common people followed........
A. business
B. agriculture
C. industry
D. politics

44. Modern Civilization is the worship of ____
A. material 
B. ethics
C. brotherhood
D. equality

45. Indian civilization is _____
A. godless
B. based on belief in God
C. based on partiality 
D. based on matter

46. Modern civilization is based on _____
A. realistic 
B. materialism 
C. artistic 
D. ever- making

47. Truth & non-violence were the chief ______
A. Books
B. Essays
C. Culture 
D. Weapons

48. The Western civilization has the tendency to privilege....... 
A. Inventions
B. Capital
C. Materiality
D. Mankind

49. We have been _____West since long.
A. Copy
B. Copying 
C. Copied 
D. Copier
50.. _______makes us slaves and we lose our moral fibre.
.......... हमें गुलाम बनाते है और हम अपनी नैतिकता को खो देते है 

A. Machinery
B. Culture 
C. Science
D. Civilization

    QUESTION  &  ANSWER    


1) How is Indian Civilization different from European Civilization?

In European civilization is guided by the writings of Greece and Rome, which no longer exist in their former glory. But INDIAN CIVILIZATION is steady. It follows the path that our forefathers tested on the anvil of experience and found true and durable. Indian civilization needs no external guide.


2) Why does Gandhiji say that 'mind is restless bird'?  What makes the mind restless ?

Gandhiji says that mind is a restless bird because it is never satisfied. The more it get the more it wants. 


3) Why did our ancestor dissuade us from luxuries and pleasure? Did they do the right thing ?

Our ancestor dissuaded us from luxuries and pleasures because they knew that we can be happy and healthy with the uses of our hands and feet. Yes, because if they had not done so, we would have been lost in a different world full form of prostitution.


4) Why according to Gandhiji, have we stuck with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago? should we do the same thing  even today ?

According to Gandhi ji, we have managed with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago because we have had no system of life-corroding competition. Yes, we should use the same things over many centuries.


5) How did our ancestors view large cities? Why were they satisfied with small villages?

Our ancestors could foresee the vices that are bound to flourish in big cities. They knew that gangs of thieves and robbers, prostitution and other vices flourish in big cities, and the rich rob the poor. They were, therefore, satisfied with small villages.


6) How did our ancestors enjoy true 'Home Rule'?

Our ancestors followed their simple occupations and lived independently. Thus they enjoyed true Home Rule.


7) What according to the author, is modern civilization?

According to Gandhiji modern civilization is the worship of materialism and violence and brutality.


8) What did the author convey to the countrymen about dealing with modern civilization?

Gandhiji points out that the tendency of Indian civilization is to elevate the moral being, but that of the western civilization is to propagate immortality. He asked his countrymen to cling to their civilization, but shun the modern civilization at all costs.


9) What is the distinguish characteristic of modern civilization ?

According to Gandhiji indefinite multiplicity of human wants is the distinguishing characteristic of modern civilization.


10) The author perceived danger from modern inventions. How?

Gandhiji believed that the inventions of modern civilization were too maddening to resist. They could give. if they are not resisted, we would barter our permanent good for momentary leasure. 


11) What does author prefer to materialism?

The author prefers spiritualism to materialism.


12) What does our civilization depend upon?

Our Civilization depends not on multiplying our demand; but on restricting them.


13) What is civilization in the real sense of the term?

In the real sense of the term, civilization means deliberate, voluntary restriction of wants.


14) What do you know about Gandhiji?

Gandhiji was populerly known as "Bapu". He was also known as father of the nation. he was more a spiritual leader than a politician. He used to truth and non-violence as the cheif weapons against teh British rule in India.


15) What did Gandhiji do for the farmers in Bihar?

As we know that the farmers of Bihar suffered enough under the Britishers. The Britishers forced the farmers to cultivate indigo. Gandhiji started satyagrah for their cause. Finnaly the farmers got relief from Britishers. 


16) What do you understand by civilization and culture?

Civilization is the state of development of a people. Their social, political, legal organisation are parts of thier civilization. Culture is all the customs, beliefs and ways of living inherited by them. Civlization and Culture, infact, go hand in hand.


17) What do our holy scriptures tell us about universal human values?

Our holy scriptures tell us about truth and sacrifice. They tell us that true happiness lies in spiritual persuits rather than in materialistic ones.




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